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Hamburg School District 6/19/99
Science - Grade 8
Goals and Descriptions
Science

The Foundations of Learning (1999) curriculum offers Kindergarten through Grade 12 objectives for the Knowledge and Comprehension levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Foundations of Learning curriculum focuses on basic skills. Objectives primarily involve the identification, recognition, or understanding of various science topics. The Applications of Learning (1999) curriculum offers Kindergarten through Grade 12 objectives for the Application and Analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Applications of Learning curriculum focuses on intermediate skills. The objectives primarily involve the application, examination, or analysis of various science topics. The Higher Order Learning (1999) curriculum offers Grade 4 through Grade 12 objectives for the Synthesis and Evaluation levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Higher Order Learning curriculum focuses on advanced skills. The objectives primarily involve the synthesis and evaluation of various science topics. The Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition (SAT-9) contains one subtest for Science at each level. In levels SESAT 1 - Primary 2, the Science subtest is titled 'Environment.' The Science Reasoning section has seven passages, each of which is followed by five to seven questions. The passages cover material drawn from biology, chemistry, physics, and the physical sciences (including geology, astronomy, and meteorology).

All of the passages fall within three basic categories:

Data Representation
Experimental Reasoning
Alternative Viewpoints

The questions test one's ability to interpret scientific data and fall into three categories:

Understanding
Analysis
Generalization Arkansas' Learning Standards are defined in the Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks, discipline-based documents which clearly describe what students must know and be able to do in the area of Science at three critical levels: grades 4, 8, and 12. The rigorous academic content standards and the student learning expectations within each document provide the focus for instruction for each local school district, without rigidly prescribing every element of the local curriculum. Student demonstration of the standards and learning expectations within the Arkansas Frameworks is the anchor for the entire education system, with instructional programs, state-level assessments, professional development, school improvement planning, teacher/administrator licensure, and accountability sharing the common goal of improved student learning and performance around these standards. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The Foundations of Learning (1999) curriculum offers Kindergarten through Grade 12 objectives for the Knowledge and Comprehension levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Foundations of Learning curriculum focuses on basic skills. Objectives primarily involve the identification, recognition, or understanding of various science topics. The Applications of Learning (1999) curriculum offers Kindergarten through Grade 12 objectives for the Application and Analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Applications of Learning curriculum focuses on intermediate skills. The objectives primarily involve the application, examination, or analysis of various science topics. The Higher Order Learning (1999) curriculum offers Grade 4 through Grade 12 objectives for the Synthesis and Evaluation levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Higher Order Learning curriculum focuses on advanced skills. The objectives primarily involve the synthesis and evaluation of various science topics. The Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition (SAT-9) contains one subtest for Science at each level. In levels SESAT 1 - Primary 2, the Science subtest is titled 'Environment.' The Science Reasoning section has seven passages, each of which is followed by five to seven questions. The passages cover material drawn from biology, chemistry, physics, and the physical sciences (including geology, astronomy, and meteorology).

All of the passages fall within three basic categories:

Data Representation
Experimental Reasoning
Alternative Viewpoints

The questions test one's ability to interpret scientific data and fall into three categories:

Understanding
Analysis
Generalization Arkansas' Learning Standards are defined in the Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks, discipline-based documents which clearly describe what students must know and be able to do in the area of Science at three critical levels: grades 4, 8, and 12. The rigorous academic content standards and the student learning expectations within each document provide the focus for instruction for each local school district, without rigidly prescribing every element of the local curriculum. Student demonstration of the standards and learning expectations within the Arkansas Frameworks is the anchor for the entire education system, with instructional programs, state-level assessments, professional development, school improvement planning, teacher/administrator licensure, and accountability sharing the common goal of improved student learning and performance around these standards. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The Foundations of Learning (1999) curriculum offers Kindergarten through Grade 12 objectives for the Knowledge and Comprehension levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Foundations of Learning curriculum focuses on basic skills. Objectives primarily involve the identification, recognition, or understanding of various science topics. The Applications of Learning (1999) curriculum offers Kindergarten through Grade 12 objectives for the Application and Analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Applications of Learning curriculum focuses on intermediate skills. The objectives primarily involve the application, examination, or analysis of various science topics. The Higher Order Learning (1999) curriculum offers Grade 4 through Grade 12 objectives for the Synthesis and Evaluation levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Higher Order Learning curriculum focuses on advanced skills. The objectives primarily involve the synthesis and evaluation of various science topics. The Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition (SAT-9) contains one subtest for Science at each level. In levels SESAT 1 - Primary 2, the Science subtest is titled 'Environment.' The Science Reasoning section has seven passages, each of which is followed by five to seven questions. The passages cover material drawn from biology, chemistry, physics, and the physical sciences (including geology, astronomy, and meteorology).

All of the passages fall within three basic categories:

Data Representation
Experimental Reasoning
Alternative Viewpoints

The questions test one's ability to interpret scientific data and fall into three categories:

Understanding
Analysis
Generalization Arkansas' Learning Standards are defined in the Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks, discipline-based documents which clearly describe what students must know and be able to do in the area of Science at three critical levels: grades 4, 8, and 12. The rigorous academic content standards and the student learning expectations within each document provide the focus for instruction for each local school district, without rigidly prescribing every element of the local curriculum. Student demonstration of the standards and learning expectations within the Arkansas Frameworks is the anchor for the entire education system, with instructional programs, state-level assessments, professional development, school improvement planning, teacher/administrator licensure, and accountability sharing the common goal of improved student learning and performance around these standards. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The Foundations of Learning (1999) curriculum offers Kindergarten through Grade 12 objectives for the Knowledge and Comprehension levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Foundations of Learning curriculum focuses on basic skills. Objectives primarily involve the identification, recognition, or understanding of various science topics. The Applications of Learning (1999) curriculum offers Kindergarten through Grade 12 objectives for the Application and Analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Applications of Learning curriculum focuses on intermediate skills. The objectives primarily involve the application, examination, or analysis of various science topics. The Higher Order Learning (1999) curriculum offers Grade 4 through Grade 12 objectives for the Synthesis and Evaluation levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Higher Order Learning curriculum focuses on advanced skills. The objectives primarily involve the synthesis and evaluation of various science topics. The Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition (SAT-9) contains one subtest for Science at each level. In levels SESAT 1 - Primary 2, the Science subtest is titled 'Environment.' The Science Reasoning section has seven passages, each of which is followed by five to seven questions. The passages cover material drawn from biology, chemistry, physics, and the physical sciences (including geology, astronomy, and meteorology).

All of the passages fall within three basic categories:

Data Representation
Experimental Reasoning
Alternative Viewpoints

The questions test one's ability to interpret scientific data and fall into three categories:

Understanding
Analysis
Generalization Arkansas' Learning Standards are defined in the Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks, discipline-based documents which clearly describe what students must know and be able to do in the area of Science at three critical levels: grades 4, 8, and 12. The rigorous academic content standards and the student learning expectations within each document provide the focus for instruction for each local school district, without rigidly prescribing every element of the local curriculum. Student demonstration of the standards and learning expectations within the Arkansas Frameworks is the anchor for the entire education system, with instructional programs, state-level assessments, professional development, school improvement planning, teacher/administrator licensure, and accountability sharing the common goal of improved student learning and performance around these standards. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The Foundations of Learning (1999) curriculum offers Kindergarten through Grade 12 objectives for the Knowledge and Comprehension levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Foundations of Learning curriculum focuses on basic skills. Objectives primarily involve the identification, recognition, or understanding of various science topics. The Applications of Learning (1999) curriculum offers Kindergarten through Grade 12 objectives for the Application and Analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Applications of Learning curriculum focuses on intermediate skills. The objectives primarily involve the application, examination, or analysis of various science topics. The Higher Order Learning (1999) curriculum offers Grade 4 through Grade 12 objectives for the Synthesis and Evaluation levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Higher Order Learning curriculum focuses on advanced skills. The objectives primarily involve the synthesis and evaluation of various science topics. The Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition (SAT-9) contains one subtest for Science at each level. In levels SESAT 1 - Primary 2, the Science subtest is titled 'Environment.' The Science Reasoning section has seven passages, each of which is followed by five to seven questions. The passages cover material drawn from biology, chemistry, physics, and the physical sciences (including geology, astronomy, and meteorology).

All of the passages fall within three basic categories:

Data Representation
Experimental Reasoning
Alternative Viewpoints

The questions test one's ability to interpret scientific data and fall into three categories:

Understanding
Analysis
Generalization Arkansas' Learning Standards are defined in the Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks, discipline-based documents which clearly describe what students must know and be able to do in the area of Science at three critical levels: grades 4, 8, and 12. The rigorous academic content standards and the student learning expectations within each document provide the focus for instruction for each local school district, without rigidly prescribing every element of the local curriculum. Student demonstration of the standards and learning expectations within the Arkansas Frameworks is the anchor for the entire education system, with instructional programs, state-level assessments, professional development, school improvement planning, teacher/administrator licensure, and accountability sharing the common goal of improved student learning and performance around these standards. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The Foundations of Learning (1999) curriculum offers Kindergarten through Grade 12 objectives for the Knowledge and Comprehension levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Foundations of Learning curriculum focuses on basic skills. Objectives primarily involve the identification, recognition, or understanding of various science topics. The Applications of Learning (1999) curriculum offers Kindergarten through Grade 12 objectives for the Application and Analysis levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Applications of Learning curriculum focuses on intermediate skills. The objectives primarily involve the application, examination, or analysis of various science topics. The Higher Order Learning (1999) curriculum offers Grade 4 through Grade 12 objectives for the Synthesis and Evaluation levels of Bloom's Taxonomy. Tudor Publishing Company developed this curriculum based on extensive research of standardized and state tests. Additional objectives were added to enhance the content areas.

The Science component of the Higher Order Learning curriculum focuses on advanced skills. The objectives primarily involve the synthesis and evaluation of various science topics. The Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition (SAT-9) contains one subtest for Science at each level. In levels SESAT 1 - Primary 2, the Science subtest is titled 'Environment.' The Science Reasoning section has seven passages, each of which is followed by five to seven questions. The passages cover material drawn from biology, chemistry, physics, and the physical sciences (including geology, astronomy, and meteorology).

All of the passages fall within three basic categories:

Data Representation
Experimental Reasoning
Alternative Viewpoints

The questions test one's ability to interpret scientific data and fall into three categories:

Understanding
Analysis
Generalization Arkansas' Learning Standards are defined in the Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks, discipline-based documents which clearly describe what students must know and be able to do in the area of Science at three critical levels: grades 4, 8, and 12. The rigorous academic content standards and the student learning expectations within each document provide the focus for instruction for each local school district, without rigidly prescribing every element of the local curriculum. Student demonstration of the standards and learning expectations within the Arkansas Frameworks is the anchor for the entire education system, with instructional programs, state-level assessments, professional development, school improvement planning, teacher/administrator licensure, and accountability sharing the common goal of improved student learning and performance around these standards. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course. The intent of this document is to provide local school district personnel with a framework which can be used to develop local instructional management plans and lesson plans for teaching science. The contents of this framework are intended to provide statewide competencies by which districts will develop objective to address these competencies. Teachers and curriculum development personnel are encouraged to expand and enhance this framework to meet the needs of their students, but limit the number of objective to a number which can be fully addressed in the course. The Mississippi Science Framework has been developed around four science strands: Life, Earth, Physical, and Science Skills. These are to be integrated throughout each grade and course.

Grade 8

The Foundations of Learning curriculum provides objectives for eighth grade students. The Applications of Learning curriculum provides objectives for eighth grade students. The Higher Order Learning curriculum provides objectives for eighth grade students. The Advanced 2 level of the Stanford Achievement Test, Ninth Edition (SAT-9) assesses students in either the spring of Grade 8 or the fall of Grade 9.

"The Stanford 9 Science subtest is designed to assess understanding of the life, physical, and earth/space sciences. Mirroring the philosophy presented in Science for All Americans, the Science subtest de-emphasizes specific content vocabulary and emphasizes the unifying themes and concepts of science. The same criteria used in the National Science Education Standards were employed to determine the importance of conceptual information, including the ideas that the concepts should have strong predictive power, be applicable in many situations, guide observation, encourage questioning, and represent organizing principles.

Each test question is carefully crafted to support high standards of student achievement in processing science information. The habits-of-mind skills described in Science for All Americans form the foundation of the reasoning skills students are asked to use throughout the subtest, including estimating, making simple calculations, seeking patterns, making observations, recognizing cause and effect, reading standard instruments, and drawing conclusions." The American College Test (ACT) is typically given to students in the later years of high school prior to applying to colleges. The Arkansas Curriculum Frameworks are discipline-based documents which clearly describe what students must know and be able to do in the area of Science at the grade 8 level.

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Earth and Space Science

STRAND 5: Earth/Space Systems

CONTENT STANDARD
Students will explore, demonstrate, communicate, apply and evaluate knowledge of the properties of earth and space systems.

STUDENT LEARNING EXPECTATIONS GRADES 5-8

5.1.11 Investigate the formation of rocks, minerals and fossils and their use in determining the age and geological history of the earth.
5.1.12 Explain the natural changes in the earth's surface over time.
5.1.13 Explore the concept of plate tectonics and describe surface features of the earth using maps.
5.1.14 Describe and model the natural physiographic divisions of Arkansas.
5.1.15 Describe and measure (when appropriate) the composition, characteristics and changing weather patterns of the atmosphere.
5.1.16 Investigate the impact that water in all of its forms has on the earth's surface.
5.1.17 Trace the pathway of how rainwater in Arkansas reaches the Gulf of Mexico.
5.1.18 Describe and explain the reasons for seasonal changes.
5.1.19 Analyze how the features of the oceans (estuaries, benthos, minerals, absorption of CO2, food, mid-oceans ridges, etc.) affect humans.
5.1.20 Compare the earth's composition to other planets in terms of supporting life.
5.1.21 Explain and compare the motions of planets, moons and comets in the solar system.
5.1.22 Investigate the theories of the formation of the solar system.
5.1.23 Explore the potential of space exploration and its relationship to the study of the universe.
5.1.24 Analyze the impact of human activities on the earth's crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere (i.e., climate change, greenhouse warming, ozone depletion and UV radiation) and explore methods of conservation and recycling of the earth's resources.

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Life Science

STRAND 4: Life Science Systems

CONTENT STANDARD
Students will explore, demonstrate, communicate, apply and evaluate the knowledge of life systems.

STUDENT LEARNING EXPECTATIONS GRADES 5-8

4.1.10 Describe similarities/differences between single celled and multi-celled organisms.
4.1.11 Explain how cells use food as a source of energy.
4.1.12 Compare and classify organisms into major groups on the basis of their structure.
4.1.13 Describe the life cycles of various organisms.
4.1.14 Explain how systems and processes work together in humans and other organisms.
4.1.15 Describe how heredity and environment influence/determine characteristics of an organism.
4.1.16 Explain how physical and/or behavioral characteristics of organisms help them to survive in their environments.
4.1.17 Describe how biologists might trace possible evolutionary relationships among present and past life forms.
4.1.18 Analyze ecosystems in terms of population relationships, food webs, energy flow and biotic succession.
4.1.19 Trace the pathway of materials as they cycle through the environment.
4.1.20 Evaluate human impact on the environment.

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Physical Science

STRAND 3: Physical Systems

CONTENT STANDARD
Students will explore, demonstrate, communicate, apply, and evaluate the knowledge of physical systems.

STUDENT LEARNING EXPECTATIONS GRADES 5-8

3.1.15 Demonstrate an understanding of the states of matter.
3.1.16 Identify and describe the properties of an atom.
3.1.17 Recognize and describe combinations of matter.
3.1.18 Explore the Periodic Chart.
3.1.19 Experiment with physical and chemical changes.
3.1.20 Explore the sources and preservation of energy and energy resources.
3.1.21 Construct models and demonstrate the function of machines.
3.1.22 Investigate the laws of motion.
3.1.23 Experiment with and measure forces.
3.1.24 Demonstrate and communicate the relationship between magnetic fields and electric currents.
3.1.25 Investigate the properties of energy transfer by light.
3.1.26 Investigate variations of sound.
3.1.27 Choose appropriate measurement devices for a given activity.

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Research and Inquiry

STRAND 1: Scientific Inquiry

CONTENT STANDARD
Students will demonstrate an understanding of science as a process of inquiry.

GRADES 5-8

1.1.8 Understand that the laws of science are universal.
1.1.9 Understand that scientific thought is non-dogmatic.
1.1.10 Recognize that science deals only with inquiry about the natural world.
1.1.11 Understand that a scientific theory is based on testable evidence that is open to falsification and can be used to predict future events.
1.1.12 Identify problems and generate experimental data utilizing appropriate technology.
1.1.13 Pursue innovative ideas to analyze and evaluate problems and explanations.
1.1.14 Think critically and logically about the relationship between evidence and explanations.
1.1.15 Generate conclusions based on evidence.
1.1.16 Design and conduct appropriate experiments to solve problems.
1.1.17 Read and communicate scientific information.
1.1.18 Explore cultural and gender bias as an impediment to scientific research.
1.1.19 Relate scientific discoveries to their contributor, their impact on society and to appropriate cultural aspects.
1.1.20 Recognize that scientific thought is a continuum influenced by historical events.

STRAND 2: Connections and Applications

CONTENT STANDARD
Students will demonstrate an understanding of the connections and applications of science.

GRADES 5-8

2.1.6 Demonstrate how science is connected to all disciplines.
2.1.7 Apply appropriate knowledge and process skills from all curricular areas to form a solution to a given problem.
2.1.8 Understand the similarities and differences between scientific inquiry and technological design.
2.1.9 Apply various thinking/problem solving strategies to scientific issues.
2.1.10 Utilize appropriate technology to investigate models, analyze data and present simulations.
2.1.11 Investigate a variety of science specific and related careers within the community and beyond.

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Earth and Space Science

STRAND 5: Earth/Space Systems

CONTENT STANDARD
Students will explore, demonstrate, communicate, apply and evaluate knowledge of the properties of earth and space systems.

STUDENT LEARNING EXPECTATIONS GRADES 5-8

5.1.11 Investigate the formation of rocks, minerals and fossils and their use in determining the age and geological history of the earth.
5.1.12 Explain the natural changes in the earth's surface over time.
5.1.13 Explore the concept of plate tectonics and describe surface features of the earth using maps.
5.1.14 Describe and model the natural physiographic divisions of Arkansas.
5.1.15 Describe and measure (when appropriate) the composition, characteristics and changing weather patterns of the atmosphere.
5.1.16 Investigate the impact that water in all of its forms has on the earth's surface.
5.1.17 Trace the pathway of how rainwater in Arkansas reaches the Gulf of Mexico.
5.1.18 Describe and explain the reasons for seasonal changes.
5.1.19 Analyze how the features of the oceans (estuaries, benthos, minerals, absorption of CO2, food, mid-oceans ridges, etc.) affect humans.
5.1.20 Compare the earth's composition to other planets in terms of supporting life.
5.1.21 Explain and compare the motions of planets, moons and comets in the solar system.
5.1.22 Investigate the theories of the formation of the solar system.
5.1.23 Explore the potential of space exploration and its relationship to the study of the universe.
5.1.24 Analyze the impact of human activities on the earth's crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere (i.e., climate change, greenhouse warming, ozone depletion and UV radiation) and explore methods of conservation and recycling of the earth's resources.

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Life Science

STRAND 4: Life Science Systems

CONTENT STANDARD
Students will explore, demonstrate, communicate, apply and evaluate the knowledge of life systems.

STUDENT LEARNING EXPECTATIONS GRADES 5-8

4.1.10 Describe similarities/differences between single celled and multi-celled organisms.
4.1.11 Explain how cells use food as a source of energy.
4.1.12 Compare and classify organisms into major groups on the basis of their structure.
4.1.13 Describe the life cycles of various organisms.
4.1.14 Explain how systems and processes work together in humans and other organisms.
4.1.15 Describe how heredity and environment influence/determine characteristics of an organism.
4.1.16 Explain how physical and/or behavioral characteristics of organisms help them to survive in their environments.
4.1.17 Describe how biologists might trace possible evolutionary relationships among present and past life forms.
4.1.18 Analyze ecosystems in terms of population relationships, food webs, energy flow and biotic succession.
4.1.19 Trace the pathway of materials as they cycle through the environment.
4.1.20 Evaluate human impact on the environment.

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Physical Science

STRAND 3: Physical Systems

CONTENT STANDARD
Students will explore, demonstrate, communicate, apply, and evaluate the knowledge of physical systems.

STUDENT LEARNING EXPECTATIONS GRADES 5-8

3.1.15 Demonstrate an understanding of the states of matter.
3.1.16 Identify and describe the properties of an atom.
3.1.17 Recognize and describe combinations of matter.
3.1.18 Explore the Periodic Chart.
3.1.19 Experiment with physical and chemical changes.
3.1.20 Explore the sources and preservation of energy and energy resources.
3.1.21 Construct models and demonstrate the function of machines.
3.1.22 Investigate the laws of motion.
3.1.23 Experiment with and measure forces.
3.1.24 Demonstrate and communicate the relationship between magnetic fields and electric currents.
3.1.25 Investigate the properties of energy transfer by light.
3.1.26 Investigate variations of sound.
3.1.27 Choose appropriate measurement devices for a given activity.

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Research and Inquiry

STRAND 1: Scientific Inquiry

CONTENT STANDARD
Students will demonstrate an understanding of science as a process of inquiry.

GRADES 5-8

1.1.8 Understand that the laws of science are universal.
1.1.9 Understand that scientific thought is non-dogmatic.
1.1.10 Recognize that science deals only with inquiry about the natural world.
1.1.11 Understand that a scientific theory is based on testable evidence that is open to falsification and can be used to predict future events.
1.1.12 Identify problems and generate experimental data utilizing appropriate technology.
1.1.13 Pursue innovative ideas to analyze and evaluate problems and explanations.
1.1.14 Think critically and logically about the relationship between evidence and explanations.
1.1.15 Generate conclusions based on evidence.
1.1.16 Design and conduct appropriate experiments to solve problems.
1.1.17 Read and communicate scientific information.
1.1.18 Explore cultural and gender bias as an impediment to scientific research.
1.1.19 Relate scientific discoveries to their contributor, their impact on society and to appropriate cultural aspects.
1.1.20 Recognize that scientific thought is a continuum influenced by historical events.

STRAND 2: Connections and Applications

CONTENT STANDARD
Students will demonstrate an understanding of the connections and applications of science.

GRADES 5-8

2.1.6 Demonstrate how science is connected to all disciplines.
2.1.7 Apply appropriate knowledge and process skills from all curricular areas to form a solution to a given problem.
2.1.8 Understand the similarities and differences between scientific inquiry and technological design.
2.1.9 Apply various thinking/problem solving strategies to scientific issues.
2.1.10 Utilize appropriate technology to investigate models, analyze data and present simulations.
2.1.11 Investigate a variety of science specific and related careers within the community and beyond.

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